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Spider mites outdoors
Controlling Spider Mites in the Garden
Two-spotted spider mites and their web. Photo: David Cappaert, Michigan State University
Though very tiny, spider mites can do a load of damage and they are so widely distributed in the environment that they are found practically everywhere. Fortunately they’re surprisingly easy to control when you recognize the symptoms and start your treatments early.
Let’s look at them in detail so you’ll better know how to handle them.
Mites, Not Spiders
First, spider mites are not spiders, nor are they insects, but mites, a type of arthropod more closely related to ticks. Though the adults do have 8 legs like a spider, that’s not where their common name comes from. They’re called spider mites because, when they’re very numerous, most species produce whitish webs.
Two-spotted spider mites and one of their eggs. Credit: Gilles San Martin, Wikimedia Commons
There are actually several mites that are commonly called spider mites. The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), also called red spider mite (although it is rarely red), is the most ubiquitous and commonest, found all over the world. As well as being abundant outdoors, this is also the species that affects houseplants.
Other common species, all with similar life cycles, include spruce spider mites (Oligonychus ununguis), which prefers spruces, pines and other needled conifers, European red spider mites (Panonychus ulmi), more common on fruit trees and grape vines (and which really are red) and birch spider mites (Eotetranychus uncatus), a problem on Betula species, but there are many others.
In our gardens, the two-spotted mite is the most common culprit, affecting both vegetables (tomatoes, squash, etc.) and ornamentals (roses, arborvitae, etc.), although European red spider mites are also quite common (and not limited to Europe, by the way).
Spider mite damage on a tomato leaf: it’s gone beyond stippling to bleaching. Credit: Scot Nelson, Flickr
Spider mites harm plants by piercing tiny holes in the leaves and stem and sucking up the sap that flows out. In small quantities, they cause little visible damage, but as their numbers increase, the leaves start to take on a stippled appearance (green with yellow spots), then look bleached as the infestation progresses. Eventually, for some plants, damaged leaves curl under and/or turn bronze.
As numbers increase, webs start to appear that may come to envelop the foliage. By this point, leaves begin to die and fall off and the whole plant goes into decline. In very severe cases, spider mites will kill their host plant.
These tiny creatures are almost invisible to the naked eye. They are often only noticed when webbing begins to appear. The webs serve to protect them from rain and predators and act as a highway, allowing them to move from one point to the other on the infested plant. Only at this point do you really see them, as the web will seem dotted with tiny moving dust particles. These are, of course, mites. Even then, you’ll need a magnifying lens to get a good look at them.
Hold a sheet of white paper under a branch and tap. If mites are present, you’ll see them moving. Credit: Jill O’Donnell, Michigan State University Extension
If you’re observant, you can detect them before that, though. Hold a sheet of white paper under a branch or leaf with suspicious yellow stippling and tap. If the dust that falls on it begins to move, you’ll know the problem is spider mites.
Spider mites have no wings and can’t fly, but they are so light that the wind can transport them from one plant to another. They can also hitch rides on clothes, tools or pets (that’s often how they get indoors onto houseplants that have never been outdoors).
Linked to Heat and Drought
Hot, dry weather makes spider mites very happy! Credit: Clipart Panda
Spider mites are present throughout the growing season, but rarely cause problems under normal gardening conditions, as they are easily knocked off plants by rain, their worst enemy. In rainy weather, their populations are so reduced they cause few noticeable problems.
It’s during periods of drought and heat that spider mites really proliferate, multiplying at high speed. The two-spotted spider mite, for example, takes 36 days to mature, from egg to adult, in cool weather, but only 7 days in hot, dry weather. Since each female can lay up to 100 eggs, the population can pass from a few dozen individuals causing no notable damage to millions, a number capable of killing a whole plant—even a small tree!—in just a few weeks.
Spruce spider mites are the exception to the rule that spider mites like things hot and dry: they’re more numerous when it’s cool, so are most often a problem in early spring and late fall.
Just blast spider mites off plants with a strong spray of water. Photo: Pixabay
The easiest way to treat spider mites is simply spray them with a strong blast of water. Use the water’s force to destroy their webs and make sure you spray both the top and bottom of leaves, plus the stems. Repeat weekly if no rain comes to help you out.
You can also spray with insecticidal soap, widely available in garden centers and hardware stores. Note that despite a persistent popular belief that a homemade solution of dishwashing liquid is just as good as insecticidal soap, in fact, most modern dishwashing liquids contain no soap whatsoever but rather detergents and detergents aren’t very effective against mites and insects. Often, in fact, they’re no more effect on spider mites than a simple spray of water.
Horticultural oil sprays will also work on spider mites, but read the label carefully. They can’t always be applied in hot weather.
It may also be useful to remove heavily damaged stems or leaves. Not only will this reduce the spider mite population and allow your treatment to reach deeper into the plant, but such plant parts are so severely damaged they likely won’t recover anyway.
You can also purchase and use insecticides. Check and make sure they are also useful as miticides (remember, spider mites are mites, not insects). Indeed, most are effective against both mites and insects..
Neem (no longer sold in Canada) is a good organic insecticide/miticide, and there are plenty of chemical ones. It’s best to start by spraying plants with water and use chemical miticides as a last resort, as they are often harmful to the environment … and to the sprayer.
It’s essentially impossible to completely prevent spider mites: they are simply everywhere in the wild. You may not see them, but they’re around. But you can help keep the population low enough that it causes no damage.
In spring, spray plants that had problems in the past, like arborvitae hedges, with dormant oil or horticultural oil. This will help eliminate any females (T. urticae) and eggs (other species) that may overwinter in bark cracks and bud scales.
Avoid nitrogen-rich fertilizers.
Avoid using nitrogen-rich fertilizers, such as cedar and hedge fertilizer, that is, ones with where the first number is highest (example 30-10-10), on plants prone to spider mites, as they boost the production of tender but weak young shoots that are very prone to attack.
Mulch the soil to keep it more evenly moist. Well-watered plants better resist spider mite damage.
Regularly spray the foliage of susceptible plants with water during hot, dry weather. Not only will this knock many spider mites off the plant, but it also increases the humidity level within the plant’s foliage and humid air impedes the development of spider mites.
Predatory mites often show up all on their own: don’t kill them with pesticides! Photo: Anders Sandberg, Wikimedia Commons
You can release predatory mites (available from several mail order sources) to control harmful ones. In fact, they often show up all on their own. If so, though, don’t use any miticides, not even soapy water, as this can kill the predatory mites. You can spray with water, though.
The same goes for ladybugs and hoverfly larvae. They are also valuable allies in the battle against spider mites. Again, spraying with water won’t hurt them, but other pesticides are a no-no.
For information on controlling spider mites indoors, read When Spider Mites Invade Houseplants.
Posts about Spider mites outdoors written by Laidback Gardener
Twospotted spider mites in home gardens
How to identify twospotted spider mites
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a type of arachnid, related to insects. Other arachnids include spiders and ticks. All arachnids, including mites, have two main body parts and eight legs.
- They are very tiny, about 1/50th of an inch long.
- Yellow-orange in color, with two dark spots, one on each side of the body.
- When a heavy infestation occurs webbing will also be present.
Biology of twospotted spider mites
Twospotted spider mite attacks 100’s of plants in gardens and landscapes including:
- Fruits, such as blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry
- Vegetables, such as cucumbers, snap beans, peas, tomatoes, and lettuce
- Annuals and perennials, such as lantana, marigolds, New Guinea impatiens, salvia, and viola
- Trees and shrub, such as arborvitae, azalea, spruce, and rose
Twospotted spider mite infestations are particularly common during hot, dry summer weather.
- They live through the winter as eggs on vegetation.
- Larvae hatch and complete development in 1-2 weeks depending on the temperature.
- Under high temperatures (>90°F) colonies can reach high numbers in less than two weeks.
- After hatching, the mites build colonies on the undersides of leaves and produce webbing over infested leave surfaces. This webbing gives them the name “spider” mites.
Damage caused by twospotted spider mites
How to protect your plants from twospotted spider mites
Check plants regularly for spider mites
- Examine plants for stippling and/or webbing.
- Look closely with a hand lens on the underside of discolored leaves for the presence of spider mites.
- You can also hold a white piece of paper or cardboard underneath potentially infested leaves; shake the leaves and look for spider mites that have fallen.
- Check garden plants every 3-5 days, especially under drought conditions.
Keep plants healthy
Spider mites thrive on plants under stress. Keep plants well-watered to reduce the chances of a spider mite attack.
- Most plants should receive about one inch of water a week to avoid stress conditions.
- Conserve moisture through proper mulching.
- Select drought-tolerant plants for locations that are particularly hot and dry.
- Do not fertilize plants during drought, as this can add further stress to plants.
- Do not overwater as this can lead to root rot.
Physically remove them
Use a high-pressure water spray to dislodge twospotted spider mites. This can also wash away their protective webbing.
Natural enemies can reduce twospotted spider mites
Certain species of lady beetles (e.g. Stethorus sp.) and predatory mites (e.g., Phytoseiulus persimilis) naturally control twospotted spider mite populations.
If the twospotted spider mite population is high, natural enemies are less effective at controlling them.
Using long-lasting pesticides like bifenthrin and permethrin kill natural enemies and should be avoided to encourage natural enemies.
There are few pesticides available for use in home gardens and landscapes that are effective against twospotted spider mites.
Insecticidal soap and horticultural oil
Insecticidal soaps are made from potassium salts of fatty acids (don’t make a homemade soap solution as this can burn and damage plants). Horticultural oils are made from either petroleum oils, vegetable oils (like cottonseed oil), or neem seed oil.
Soaps and horticultural oils are reasonably effective against mites and have little impact on people, animals and nontarget insects.
These products will only kill mites that the pesticide directly contacts. They do not have any residual activity.
Target the underside of leaves as well as the top.
Repeat applications may be needed.
Long-lasting insecticides, such as bifenthrin and permethrin can be used on twospotted spider infestations. However, these insecticides also kill natural enemies and could possibly make infestations worse in the long run.
Twospotted spider mite infestations occur when it is hot and dry.
Water plants thoroughly before spraying pesticides for spider mites.
Spray in the early morning or early evening.
These steps will reduce the risk of further stressing plants and causing injury.
CAUTION: Mention of a pesticide or use of a pesticide label is for educational purposes only. Always follow the pesticide label directions attached to the pesticide container you are using. Remember, the label is the law.
If twospotted spider mites continue to be a problem after control efforts have been attempted, and the plants are valued, consider hiring a landscape professional to treat them. Landscape professionals have the training, experience, and wider array of pesticide products to effectively deal with spider mite infestations.
Jeffrey Hahn, Extension entomologist and Suzanne Wold-Burkness, College of Food, Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences
How to identify twospotted spider mites Identify and control spider mites found in gardens