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A crude extraction involves either a physical means of separation or a chemical means of separation. Physical separation techniques, such as sieving or rosin, tend to yield concentrates containing more plant impurities than chemical-based extraction methods, namely Butane Hash Oil (BHO) or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. Whether the cannabinoids are separated by physical or chemical means, the crude extract produced contains impurities that must be removed before the oil can be separated into its individual cannabinoids. The next major step in producing distillate is called winterization.

It is a method to purify the crude extract of byproducts: plant waxes, fats, lipids, and chlorophyll. The solution is then placed in a very cold environment for 24 to 48 hours. The impurities coagulate in the cold temperature and precipitate, or separate, falling to the bottom of the container. This is similar to baking a chicken: the excess grease and juices drip down into the pan and thicken when cooled. The crude extract and ethanol solution is then passed through a filter. Ethanol can be removed using a variety of techniques, such as a rotary evaporator or a falling film evaporator. THC, for example, is the well-known compound and active cannabinoid that produces an intoxicating effect. However, it’s tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), that’s found at this stage.

THCA isn’t the only cannabinoid that needs to be decarboxylated in order to interact effectively with the human body. All cannabinoids in their acid form must first be decarboxylated. In fact, there is no THCA in distillate because it’s always decarboxylated. Decarboxylation is the process of removing the carboxylic acid from a cannabinoid’s chemical compound. A cannabinoid is decarboxylated when it’s heated to the point of eliminating the carboxylic acid. By removing that acid group, the cannabinoid can readily interact within the body and bind to the receptors in the nervous system — specifically, the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors. The point of decarboxylation depends primarily on time and temperature. For example, THCA begins to decarboxylate into THC when it’s exposed to heat at 220 degrees Fahrenheit, or 104.44 degrees Celsius, or to an open flame. When producing cannabis edibles, extractors will decarboxylate cannabis oil, then mix the resulting concentrate with other ingredients to infuse foods, confections, and beverages with active cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. The final steps for making this cannabis oil involves the actual cannabis distillation process. Using vacuum pressure and heat, individual cannabinoids and terpenes can be separated from the decarboxylated extract according to their unique boiling points and molecular weights. In a vacuum environment, where the pressure can be strictly controlled, the boiling point of can be achieved at much lower temperatures to help prevent the loss of potency. Dublin LGFA in association with New Ireland Assurance is delighted to announce the line- up of our 2016 Junior Dub Stars teams. The inaugural Junior Dub Stars match took place last year and was a tremendous success providing a perfect platform to recognise and acknowledge the commitment and dedication of our club player’s right across all adult competitions and grades. The panels this season have been increased from 20 to 25 thus providing 50 players representing 37 junior clubs from right across the County the opportunity to wear a Dub Stars jersey. Each player chosen as a Junior Dub Star will each receive a full Dub Stars kit along with a specially commissioned Dub Stars commemorative medal. Aoife Martin (Naomh Barrog) and Shauna O’Hara (O’Dwyers) will captain the sides in recognition of their respective clubs winning the Junior B and Junior C New Ireland Assurance club championships in 2016. The Junior Dub Stars game will get proceedings underway in DCU (St Clare’s) at 11:30am followed by the senior game at 1.30pm, Dub Stars v Dublin. Admission to the Dub Stars event on January 8th in DCU will be free of charge however patrons will be encouraged to support a bucket collection in aid of the official charity partner of Dublin LGFA, Aoibheann’s Pink Tie. Junior Dub Stars (Blue Team) Aoibheann O’Dwyer (Parnells B) Aoife De Burca (Scoil Ui Chonaill) Aoife Reardon (Thomas Davis B) Audrey Murtagh (Lucan Sarsfields B) Christine Harford (Fingal Ravens) Ciara Buchanan (St Finians Swords) Ciara McConnell (Ballyboughal) Elin Kirwan (Round Towers Lusk) Emma Barry (Foxrock Cabinteely) Gillian McCluskey (Erins Isle) Heather O’Neill (Naomh Barrog) Helen White (Garristown) Julie O’Neill (St Brendan’s) Lisa Breheny (St Monica’s) Louise Coonagh (Trinity Gaels) Mide Ní Shuilleabhan (Na Fianna B) Orla Ryan (Whitehall Colmcille) Rachel Slater (Castleknock B) Rachel Tully (Parnells B) Ruth Weakliam (O’Dwyers) Sandra O’Connor (St Finians Newcastle) Sarah Brennan (Naomh Mearnog) Sarah McManus (Fingallians) Shauna O’Hara, Captain (O’Dwyers) Shelley Delahunty (Crumlin) Management Team: Michael Blount (O’Dwyers), Paul Kennedy (Clanna Gael Fontenoy), Gerry Rooney (Ballyboughal) Junior Dub Stars (Navy Team) Anne O’Donovan (Clanna Gael Fontenoy B) Aoife Costello (Naomh Barrog) Aoife Hennessy (Ballyboughal) Aoife Martin, Captain (Naomh Barrog) Celine Darcy (Whitehall Colmcille) Debbie Lowe (Na Fianna B) Dee Maher (St Jude’s B) Emer Kelly (Clanna Gael Fontenoy B) Emma Bolger (Ballymun Kickhams) Emma Grouse (Craobh Chiarain) Erica Byrne (O’Dwyers) Faun Duggan (Clanna Gael Fontenoy B) Frances McCann (St Anne’s) Grainne McGinnty (St Sylvester’s B) Hannah O’Connor (Clontarf B) Hannah Richardson (Man O War) Jennifer Judge (St Peregrines) Jessie Lynch (St Monica’s) Karen White (Wanderers) Kayley Hannon (Parnells B) Meabh Malone (Kilmacud Crokes B) Rachel Staunton (Stars of Erin) Rosie Cully (Raheny) Sarah Burns (Ballyboden St Endas B) Sorcha O’Kelly (St Monica’s) Management Team: Gavin Donegan (Naomh Barrog), Suzanne Hannon (Parnells) Philip Kelly (St Monica’s). Princeton researchers dub star 'Kronos' Sun-like star Kronos shows signs of having ingested 15 Earth masses worth of rocky planets, prompting Princeton astronomers to nickname it for the Titan who ate his young. This artist’s rendering of the diverse rocky planets in our galaxy hints at what Kronos’ planets might have looked like before the star enveloped them. In mythology, the Titan Kronos devoured his children, including Poseidon (better known as the planet Neptune), Hades (Pluto) and three daughters.

So when a group of Princeton astronomers discovered twin stars, one of which showed signs of having ingested a dozen or more rocky planets, they named them after Kronos and his lesser-known brother Krios. Their official designations are HD 240430 and HD 240429, and they are both about 350 light years from Earth. The keys to the discovery were first confirming that the widely separated pair are in fact a binary pair, and secondly observing Kronos’ strikingly unusual chemical abundance pattern, explained Semyeong Oh, a graduate student in astrophysical sciences who is lead author on a new paper describing Kronos and Krios. Young Professor of Astronomy on the Class of 1897 Foundation and director of the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics.

Other co-moving star pairs have had different chemistries, Oh explained, but none as dramatic as Kronos and Krios. Most stars that are as metal-rich as Kronos “have all the other elements enhanced at a similar level,” she said, “whereas Kronos has volatile elements suppressed, which makes it really weird in the general context of stellar abundance patterns.” In other words, Kronos had an unusually high level of rock-forming minerals, including magnesium, aluminum, silicon, iron, chromium and yttrium, without an equally high level of volatile compounds — those that are most often found in gas form, like oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and potassium.


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