What Is Light Deprivation And How Does It Affect Cannabis?
Light deprivation is a valuable technique for growers looking to speed up the flowering process, or those living in wet, colder climates. Find out the pros and cons of “light dep,” and see how to use it to achieve two or more harvests per season!
The light deprivation or “light dep” technique allows you to control the hours of light your outdoor cannabis plants receive. When you trick your plants into thinking that the shorter light periods of autumn are beginning, they will speed up the flowering process. The benefit of this is that you can make your plants flower at will. This will allow you to achieve two or more outdoor harvests per season! When your plants are budding in summer as opposed to fall, this can have even more advantages. Let’s take a closer look at light deprivation for cannabis and how to make use of it for a better harvest.
WHEN CAN I USE LIGHT DEPRIVATION?
For most European growers, plants receive on average 12.5 hours of light in September. In the winter months, however, the days will be quite short with plants only getting about 7-9 hours of light. Most of the time, outdoor marijuana crops will finish their flowering in October with some strains waiting all the way until November.
The cool temperatures and rainy weather throughout most of northern Europe in late fall means a significant risk for bud rot. With the light deprivation technique, you can force your plants to bud as early as July. The intense sunlight and higher temperatures of the summer can improve the quality of your bud, minimising the risk for mould and rot. From July on, when the natural sunlight hours start decreasing, you won’t need to keep using the light dep technique as your plants will have already moved into flowering.
WHAT IS A GOOD TIME FOR FLOWERING BEFORE THE WEATHER GETS BAD?
Some growers prefer to use light deprivation on their plants at the beginning of July. If you ensure that your plants get only 12 hours of sunlight, they will begin flowering. After three weeks with your light deprived plants in flower, you won’t need to cover them any longer since the days will be sufficiently short. Pretty much any strain grown this way should be ready for harvest long before the weather gets too ugly!
LIGHT DEP TECHNIQUE: HOW TO COVER YOUR PLANTS?
How to cover your plants will depend first and foremost on how many you have. But regardless of whether you only have a couple outdoor ladies, or want to cover-up an entire greenhouse, what’s important is that your cover is 100% light-proof. Using any material that allows light to filter through, or leaving any gaps in coverage could prevent your plants from flowering or lead to hermies.
The easiest way to make a cover for your plants is with a thick, light-proof plastic cover or some kind of tarp. You should be able to find suitable materials at any well-sorted grow store. With the help of some clothespins, you can easily make light-proof bags that will fit over your plants and their containers.
Black plastic bins of a suitable size can also be used for the light deprivation technique as long as they are fully light-proof.
Alternatively, instead of covering up your plants, you can also move them to a dark room for the purpose of light deprivation. This may work well for a small number of plants grown in pots, but may become a big chore in the event of many plants. Furthermore, the requirement of moving your plants in and out on a daily basis may end up taking more effort than it’s worth.
PLAN YOUR LIGHT DEP PROJECT WELL
In theory, covering your plants isn’t rocket science. However, there are some things to consider before you start out with your light deprivation grow project.
First, know that cannabis is very sensitive to light in the dark/night cycle during the flowering phase. Your precious ladies really want to be left alone, undisturbed, and in complete darkness during these hours. Sometimes, even slight disturbances from accidental light exposure can make them grow poorly, leading to all sorts of problems.
Covering your plants under some type of container or light-proof tarp with the sun hitting can increase temperatures and create a higher risk of moisture buildup inside. So keep an eye on these things as well. If you can, move your covered plants to a shady area out of direct sun.
DON’T UNDERESTIMATE THE SIZE OF YOUR PLANTS
Your plants may be small right now, but they likely won’t stay that way. Many strains, sativas in particular, can stretch considerably when they flower and may reach gigantic proportions. It is relatively easy to underestimate the final size of some strains. Take this into account when coming up with an effective way to cover your plants. If you make or purchase covers that are too small, you run the risk of the technique failing.
WHEN IS THE BEST TIME TO COVER YOUR PLANTS?
It doesn’t matter whether you put a cover on your plants in the morning or the evening. But you need to be consistent and do this at the same time everyday so that your plants don’t get more than 12 hours of light. Once you start, you can’t change your schedule around during the light deprivation grow phase. Think about what works best for you; whether you want to do this in the morning or the evening.
Lastly, before you start with your “cover up activities,” you might want to consider whether moving your plants around or having a “bag” on them will raise suspicions with less-than-trustworthy neighbours. It can be a good idea to do your gardening duties at a time when it’s less likely to draw someone’s unwanted attention.
WINDOWSILL GROWING INDOORS CAN BE IDEAL FOR LIGHT DEP
Some growers don’t use a dedicated tent or a grow room, they simply grow marijuana on a windowsill. This can work fairly well assuming that the plants get plenty of sunlight through the window.
Such a windowsill can be an excellent way to implement the light deprivation technique because all you require are light depriving blinds or curtains. After your plants receive the necessary light exposure for that day, you can simply close the curtains or shut the blinds. No moving of your precious plants required and no covering of your plants! Some who grow this way on a sunny windowsill say that they get excellent results from it.
AUTOMATING YOUR LIGHT DEP GROW
No question, the requirement for consistency when you cover and uncover your plants on a daily basis can make such a project quite tedious. You will, after all, need to do this everyday for several weeks. And as if this isn’t already challenging enough, the plants unfortunately won’t handle mistakes or forgetfulness too well either. Expert growers who use light dep to maximise their harvests will normally automate the process.
The windowsill technique is a great example where you could automate things easily. For this, you only need a timer and an electric curtain rail. Simply set the timer, and all the light dep work will be taken care of for you!
USE LIGHT DEPRIVATION FOR TWO HARVESTS PER SEASON
Growers normally make use of light deprivation when they want to max out their harvests. The technique can help facilitate two, and in some cases, three harvests per outdoor season. A popular method is to grow a group of plants the “normal” way, and cultivate a separate group using light dep. The light deprived crops can then be harvested as early as August while the other plants will be ready in fall.
Know that cannabis light deprivation may not work equally for everyone. The best way to go about it depends on various factors, including your local climate and your plant’s environment. This is why some experimentation with light dep can be worthwhile. In time, you will find a way to achieve optimal results from this technique.
WHAT ABOUT AUTOFLOWERING STRAINS AND LIGHT DEPRIVATION?
Autoflowering cannabis strains have the advantage that they do not rely on the natural daylight cycles for their flowering period. Most autos will do fine with 13-18 hours of sunlight, with some growers even using a 24 hour light schedule. Since autos won’t respond to changes in light hours, using any light dep technique for these strains wouldn’t make much sense. However, growing autoflowering strains, in particular “super autos” that grow larger and produce bigger yields, can be a good alternative if you want to grow outdoors, but don’t want to rely on natural daylight hours.
Light deprivation or light dep is a technique growers use to speed up harvests and increase bud quality.
Indoor vs. Outdoor Weed: A Visual Guide
This guide was created to help sift through the endless varieties of cannabis we now have available to us at dispensaries. Now, this doesn’t apply to all strains, because every strain has different characteristics and grows different with every farmer’s care. However, these tools can be used to help analyze the often subtle differences between cannabis cultivated outdoor or indoor. At the end of the day, cannabis is a diverse and incommensurable plant — not all distinguishing factors will apply to every situation because every strain is unique.
It’s important to note that buds can be grown properly or improperly regardless of whether they were grown inside or outside, so improperly grown indoor can visually look like outdoor, while properly grown outdoor can easily look like indoor. But there are some standard tell-tale signs that cannabis has been grown inside or outside, so sit back and enjoy our visual guide to indoor vs. outdoor marijuana.
First let’s get a base calibration to see where you are starting.
Can you differentiate which one was cultivated indoors and which was cultivated outdoors?
If you guessed A was outdoor and B was indoor you are correct! Now let’s find out how you can easily differentiate how cannabis was grown through some strategic visual clues.
The sizes of the buds are, in many ways, the first visual cues to tell whether buds were grown indoor or outdoor. But it is a general rule of thumb that everything is bigger with outdoor-cultivated buds. The buds themselves are bigger and chunkier, but one of the most foolproof ways to differentiate the two is by looking at the stem. Outdoor grown buds will have a significantly thicker stem than indoor cultivated nugs. Indoor buds will typically be smaller and more dense than outdoor’s big, clunky nugs.
Trichome density is a key visual cue when attempting to differentiate between indoor cultivation and outdoor cultivation. Because indoor buds are smaller, closer to their light source, and in a perfectly controlled environment, they typically rank very high on the trichome density scale. So when examining an impeccably grown indoor nug all that can be seen is glimmering crystals with very little plant material visible. Outdoor nugs on the other hand are generally larger, so those trichomes would have to work much harder to cover the entire surface of an outdoor bud. Additionally, outdoor plants are subjected to the elements which can damage trichome development. So the trichome density is typically more sparse on outdoor-cultivated nugs than ones grown indoors.
Example of high trichome density on indoor cultivated buds.
One of the most significant visual characteristics that can be used to differentiate sun-grown cannabis versus indoor-grown cannabis is the color. Outdoor cannabis tends to have a darker hue in general. If the cultivar produces green flowers, outdoor nugs will appear a darker green, possibly leaning towards brown if not cured correctly, while indoor buds will be a brighter, more vivid green. If the cultivar produces purple flowers, outdoor buds will turn a deep, striking purple while indoor nugs will stay lighter shades of purple (unless the strain’s genetics produce dark purple buds in any condition).
Another visual cue is the color on the bottom of the flowers. Buds cultivated outdoors almost always have a light brown color surrounding the stalk at the base of the bud (don’t worry it’s not mold). Usually, the tiny bracts at the bottom of the stalk will be a light brown as well. Indoor buds, on the other hand, are bright green (or purple) throughout.
Example of a darker hue on outdoor grown Lemon Kush.
There is a widespread myth that outdoor cultivated cannabis is less potent than indoor-cultivated cannabis. Simply put, that’s just not true. The dedicated farmers at Sunna Ra Acres have busted this myth once and for all. For the last few years, they have been conducting side-by-side tests of two clones taken from the same mother plant, one grown outdoors and one grown indoors. They’ve executed this experiment with a variety of strains and each time, the plant that is cultivated outside under the sun results in a higher overall cannabinoid profile. That means higher in THC, higher in CBD, higher in THCv, etc. Their experiment has shown that the sun unleashes the plant’s true potential and heightens its medicinal power.
In this case, terpenes are very similar to cannabinoids in that their profiles are intensified by the sun. In Sunna Ra Acre’s many years of experimentation they have found that if two identical plants are grown “side-by-side” — one grown outside, one grown inside — the plant that is grown outside will have a higher percentage of terpenes. And in some cases, the plants even reveal terpenes no one knew were there. When these two plants are smoked, the difference is very distinguishable with the outdoor being much more flavorful and aromatic. With that said, terpenes are volatile, meaning they will evaporate without proper drying and curing processes. Many indoor growers take greater care in their final stages of drying and curing because they yield far less and their product moves from one indoor room to another, providing more control through the process. New outdoor growers versus seasoned outdoor growers may overlook the step of proper drying and lose their high-terpene profile as a result.
While this category is very subjective and does not always apply, historically, outdoor growers spend less time trimming their final product than indoor growers. This typically has to do with the amount of bud harvested, outdoor growers are pulling down 5, 10, or 20 lbs per plant while indoor growers are pulling down 0.5, 1, or 2 lbs per plant. Trimming mass amounts of weed per plant would not only take weeks, but a big full-time crew would be needed. So the end result is usually a looser, leafier trim job — especially because outdoor plants are leafier in general. So while not always applicable, you can typically spot the difference between outdoor and indoor pretty immediately by scoping out the trim job.
Running through all these characteristics, with some give and take, while analyzing the hundreds of buds available for purchase at your local dispensary will help you to differentiate the outdoor grown from the indoor grown. If you are lucky enough to have access to the same flower cultivated both indoors and outdoors, it is amazing to smoke them side-by-side and compare the flavor profiles versus bag appeal. Indoor typically has better bag appeal while outdoor has the better flavor profile — it’s all about what you’re looking for in your daily smoke.
Before we go, there is a huge elephant in the room that we have not discussed today and that is greenhouse cultivated cannabis. Greenhouses are can be categorized as indoor cultivation using the power of the sun. It is the perfect marriage of indoor and outdoor because you have the environmental control of indoor but the incredible power of the sun. The result is typically buds that have the bag appeal of indoor with the elevated terpene and cannabinoid profiles of outdoor.
Can You Smoke Brown Weed?
Yes, you can, but it’s not going to be as potent or flavorful. The three things that degrade cannabis are heat, light, and time. When brown in color, weed has lost some of its potency and therapeutic value as the cannabinoids, such as THC, have been degraded. In addition, it’s lost a lot of its smell and flavor as the terpenes have potentially oxidized or evaporated. Smoking brown weed will not severely injure you or make you sick, but it is not suggested for use.
Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun do break down your cannabis over time. An oft-referred to study from 1976 at the University of London said light is the No. 1 reason for cannabinoid breakdown. If it’s burnt or overexposed to the sun during the growing process, weed will appear brown in hue. The color is due to sun damage on the colas of the plant, and it’s been shown cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) can transform into cannabidiol (CBD) with enough exposure, and THCV will degrade into CBV . In that case, some THC could still be intact, but the cannabinoids were at least partially transformed, or decarboxylated out of the plant by the sun.
How Much of a Difference in Quality is Outdoor vs. Indoor Weed?
There is high-quality weed both grown indoors and outdoors, but there are certain factors that determine the quality of the end product.
Between indoor and outdoor cultivation, the distinguishing factor in quality is the control of its environment. Factors such as temperature, light, water, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure and care are going to be easier to control during indoor cultivation. While some strains may appear to grow a bit wilder outdoors, they are capable of developing the same amount of cannabinoids and terpenes as indoor-grown cannabis. Because of the unpredictability of nature, outdoor growing often requires a tepid climate.
The biggest case for growing weed outdoors is energy efficiency. Using all sunlight, or even just partial use of sunlight, to grow cannabis can save home growers and large-scale producers a lot of money in energy consumption. To take advantage of daylight and to take into account its variation during the year, many facilities have adopted a supplemental light grow in states where regulations permit it. Supplement light means the growers are using the sun when they can and then use lights when sunlight is unavailable, if the weed needs it.
The quality is mainly dependent on the seeds, the grower’s experience, and the care, not whether it was grown indoors or outdoors. Outdoor cultivation has a long history in Northern California ; the Emerald Triangle of Humboldt, Mendocino, and Trinity counties got its name because of its ideal climate for outdoor cultivation. In a handful of legal cannabis states, regulations may require grows to be indoors and hidden from public view.
Indoor vs. Outdoor Weed: A Visual Guide This guide was created to help sift through the endless varieties of cannabis we now have available to us at dispensaries. Now, this doesn’t apply to all