The plants do not produce buds, but small amounts of cannabinoids can be found in the leaves, stems, and sacs, which can be extracted to produce hash or other oils. Cannabis Craftsmanship: How to Make Hash With Funky Skunk Extracts. Cannabis plants offer more benefits in the garden beyond bud production.
Both male and female cannabis plants produce aromatic oils called terpenes, which are associated with pest and disease control. Since males also produce terpenes, you may consider including your males in a vegetable or flower garden (as long as they’re well separated from any female cannabis plants). Dried material from cannabis plants have also been used to produce terpene-rich oils that are applied to repel insects and pests as natural bug sprays. Additionally, cannabis plants are deep rooting plants with long taproots. Taproots are known for their ability to dive deep into the ground and break apart low-quality soil, allowing for moisture and nutrients to infiltrate and improve the soil quality. These taproots also help keep the soil in place, thereby preventing nutrient runoff and loss of soil during heavy rains. Humans are largely focused on female cannabis plants, and rightly so. But it’s important to acknowledge and cherish the characteristics of the male cannabis plants as well.
Females may produce the buds we know and love, but by limiting diversity of the males, we could be losing out on potential benefits we do not yet understand. Specific males could have compounds we are unaware of that might play significant roles in how females develop, or how cannabis as a whole develops in the future. If attempting to capitalize on any of the above benefits without the intent to breed, keep in mind that cannabis pollen is extremely good at traveling long distances, determined to find a female. It helps to have a solid understanding of how pollen works and travels before you embark on any of these alternative uses so as not to accidentally pollinate your own plants or a neighbor’s. As with every patient, the laboratory workup depends upon the severity of the illness. For anything more severe than mild intoxication, the following tests are generally recommended: Pulse oximetry: Pulse oximetry assesses the degree of oxygenation and general state of pulmonary effort and function. Serum chemistry: Analyses should include a standard renal panel including sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, BUN, and creatinine. Some of the inhalants, toluene in particular, cause a syndrome of distal renal tubular acidosis, with a resultant elevated anion gap, hyperchloremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. Azotemia is also common with chronic exposure but resolves with abstinence. Arterial blood gases (ABGs): This study can be helpful in cases of inhalant intoxication. Significant acidosis, hypoxemia, or hypercarbia may suggest the need for patient intubation. Complete blood count (CBC): CBC is useful as a routine screening laboratory test. Chronic users may exhibit bone marrow suppression, thrombocytopenia, and aplastic anemia. Urinalysis: Elevated urobilinogen suggests hepatic involvement. Hyaline casts, elevated white blood cell counts, elevated red blood cell counts, or abnormal glucose and protein levels may suggest renal injury. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK): Useful in patients with muscle tenderness or myoglobinuria to evaluate the presence of rhabdomyolysis. Serum or urine toxicology: Toxicology screens may be helpful if the specific chemical involved is unknown. Specific toxicologic tests of inhalant agents are not readily available in all laboratories and may take several days to weeks to get results, so they are not helpful in the immediate diagnosis. Thiesen et al showed that toluene can be detected as urinary hippuric acid (UHA) but required correlation to blood toluene levels.  Chakroun et al demonstrated similar results and also detected o -Cresol and 2,5 hexandione in the urine. Consult with the laboratory regarding their ability to test for specific agents. Pregnancy testing should be done in all solvent-abusing females because of the risk of embryopathy caused by these agents. Imaging studies can be useful adjuncts to the history, physical, and laboratory evaluation.
Suggested studies include chest radiographs and head CT scan. Chest radiograph: This study helps identify the etiology of respiratory difficulties associated with inhalant abuse. These include pneumothorax, aspiration pneumonia, or chemical pneumonitis with patchy or diffuse infiltrates. Chronic abusers with subsequent cardiomegaly might exhibit enlarged heart size and pulmonary edema. Head CT scan: If occult trauma is suspected in the inhalant abuse patient, be liberal with CT scanning to rule out intracranial hemorrhage and occult fractures. Chronic abusers may show signs of cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. MRI: Abuse of nitrites can cresult in dorsal and lateral spinal column disorders due to effects on B12 metabolism. ECG/cardiac monitoring: Many inhalants are proarrhythmic; therefore, acutely intoxicated patients should have continuous ECG monitoring.
ECG often shows tachycardia, bradycardia, arrhythmias, or even cardiac ischemia with solvent abuse. See the list below: Follow advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines.