bugs and weeds

“A Nature Observer’s Scrapbook”


. hopefully, that title, “A Nature Observer’s Scrapbook”, will imply that this site has no pretensions, in any way, to being an authoritive wildlife guide or a reference site.

The images and diary records that follow simply represent the astonishing diversity of species that I have stumbled across in my ‘home patch’ near Horncastle in East Lincolnshire, UK. The entries date from 2003 when I bought my first digital camera. Initially I thought I might find half a dozen butterflies, a few moths and one or two beetles but I gradually awoke to the huge variety of natural wonders that exist all around us – if only we care to stop and look. On a few occasions I have gone out with the deliberate intention of looking for something in particular. I rarely find what I am looking for but, I do come across all sorts of surprises and chance encounters.

Initially, I tried to keep my intrusion into the natural world to a minimum and most subjects were photographed as they were found. But latterly, hand tremor has made that less successful and I have resorted to carefully scooping up tolerant subjects and bringing them indoors where I have more camera control – and can occasionally add a scaled background which is vital for identification of a lot of species. All specimens are then released back from whence they came, to their natural environment.

NB. All dates are in the format.

Changes to the site since 6th April 2014.

The most recent updates are at the top and clicking on a specific ‘Update’ should take you directly to that item.

Date Page Update
01.10.2016 Other Insects Scorpion Fly (revised text)
31.08.2015 Butterflies Holly Blue (new image and text)
27.05.2015 Spiders Nursery Web Spider (new image and text)
27.02.2015 Macro Moths Page 5 Burnished Brass (new species)
24.02.2015 Macro Moths page 4 Green Pug (new image)
17.02.2015 Macro Moths page 2 Gem (new species)
15.02.2015 Birds page 2 Robin (new species)
14.02.2015 Birds page 2 Jay (new species)
13.02.2015 Birds page 2 Pied Wagtail (new species)
12.02.2015 Birds page 1 Dunnock/Accentor/Hedge Sparrow new species.
Birds page 1 Lapwing, new image.
11.02.2015 Birds page 2 Fieldfare, new image.
Birds page 2 Turnstone, new species.
25.01.2015 Birds page 2 Blackbird, new species.
22.01.2015 Birds page 2 Fieldfare, new species.
Birds page 2 Redwing, new species.
18.01.2015 Macro Moths page 4 Flightless female Winter Moth, new image
13.01.2015 Birds page 2 Long-tailed Tit, new species added
12.01.2015 Birds page 2 Goldfinch, new species added
Birds page 2 Chaffinch, new species added
Birds page 2 Blue Tit, new species added
Birds page 2 Great Tit, new species added
Birds page 2 Coal Tit, new species added
15.11.2014 Macro Moths page 4 Winter Moth text updated, new image.
10.11.2014 Macro Moths page 2 Mottled Umber, new male moth image.
20.04.2014 Spiders Clubiona, Sac spider, text correction.
06.04.2014 Flies page 2 Bee-fly, new images and text update

Use of images.

I am only too well aware that there are many excellent images out there on the web but, copyright issues often do not make it possible to use them to embellish what I have found. Therefore, where it is felt appropriate, links are provided pointing to parent websites where topic supportive images can be viewed.

By the same token, all images on this site are copyright protected and inbound links are allowed.

While the use of individual images may be favourably approved for non web based personal use, educational, charitable or non-profit purposes (provided that the copyright attribution is retained), formal approval should be sought from .

. advising of the circumstances in which a specific image will be used.

Publication approval for any other purpose will be considered on its merits.

Site evolution.

This DIY attempt at a multi-linked-page site (using X/HTML and CSS) started out way back in 2004 as a ‘for my eyes only’ concept – a sort of, ‘I wonder how that’s done?’, experiment. It was a tortuous road with many visits down blind alleys.

I cannot claim that the site was ‘designed’. It just grew. As problems were solved other options opened up. It was initially developed on an IE6 browser and a 15 inch monitor with a screen resolution of 1024 x 768 pix. (That’s by way of an excuse should any ‘odd’ things show up on your system.)

After some persuasion to ’embrace a multi browser audience’ – and many tweaks, twiddles and validation cycles later, it appears to comply with W3C X/HTML and CSS standards. It ‘should’ now be viewable (more or less as intended) with the IE6, IE7, IE8 (in ‘compatibility’ mode), Opera 7.23, Mozilla 1.6 and the Apple Safari browsers.

One of my self imposed goals was to keep the lefthand navigation sidebar viewable at all times. As a result, the layout is a bit lop-sided when viewed full screen in Opera and Mozilla but that is an attempted compromise to keep the content viewable should anyone want to use a minimised window.


While building the site, I relied heavily on a well thumbed edition of,
‘A Visual Quickstart Guide’, HTML for the World Wide Web , 5th edition, by Elizabeth Castro,
– very good value at

That apart, probably the best HTML teaching aids that I came across were the two validation engines that I used,
the CSE HTML Validator Lite and the W3C MarkUp Validation Service .
These validators not only point out what may be wrong with the coding, they also offer hints and suggestions about putting it right!

And then there was the invaluable friendly help, advice and encouragement received from the uk.people.silversurfer newsgroup gang, who kept me going as I struggled through the ‘dark days’.

As the site audience grew and information accuracy became paramount I came to rely extensively upon the expertise of a large band of very knowledgeable experts, largely drawn from the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust and the Lincolnshire Naturalists Union, for verification of species identification. Whatever merit the site may have is down to their enthusiastic help and encouragement – for which I am truly grateful.

And finally, . feedback.

Should you find any broken links, errors, typos, questionable statements or identifications or, indeed, any irritating facets of the site design, or maybe you have a follow-up question or general comment, please feel free to contact me at

Thank you for viewing. I hope you found something of interest.

Mentioned within this site are several links to other websites where context supportive information can be found. The following sites are among those which I return to regularly and can recommend.

Images, notes and diary records of some of the biological species found in East Lincolnshire, UK. The sitemap has links to all featured species

Weeds, Insects, and Diseases


The geographic distribution, vigor, virulence, and agricultural impact of weeds, insects, and plant pathogens will be affected by climatic changes accompanying the global “greenhouse effect.” Weed/crop competitive interactions, particularly among species differing in photosynthetic pathway (C3 v C4), may be altered, with the C3 species favored by increasing CO2. Physiological and biochemical changes induced in host crop plants by rising CO2 may affect feeding patterns of pest insects. Compilation of climatic thresholds for phenological development of pest insects reveals the potential for shifts in pest behavior induced by global warming and other climatic change. Generation times may be reduced, enabling more rapid population increases to occur. Poleward migration may be accelerated during the crop season. The epidemiology of plant diseases also will be altered. Prediction of disease outbreaks will be more difficult in periods of rapidly changing climate and unstable weather. Environmental instability and increased incidence of extreme weather may reduce the effectiveness of pesticides on targeted pests or result in more injury to non-target organisms. Biological control may be affected either negatively or positively. Overall, the challenge to agriculture from pests probably will increase.

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Cammell, M.E., and Knight, J.D.: 1991, ‘Effects of Climate Change on the Population Dynamics of Crop Pests’. Advances in Ecological Research 22, 117–162.

Carlson, H. L., and Hill, J.E.: 1985, ‘Wild Oat (Avena fatua) Competition with Spring Wheat: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization’. Weed Sci. 34, 29–33.

Carter, D.R., and Peterson, K.M.:1983, ‘Effects of a CO2 Enriched Atmosphere on the Growth and Competitive Interaction of a C3 and a C4 Grass’. Oecologia 58, 188–193.

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Flint, E.P., and Patterson, D.T.: 1983, ‘Interference and Temperature Effects on Growth in Soybean (Glycine max) and Associated C3 and C4 Weeds’. Weed Science 31, 193–199.

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Harlan, J. R.: 1975, Crops and Man, American Society of Agronomy, and Crop Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Harrington, R., and Stork, N.E. (eds.): 1995, Insects in a Changing Environment, Academic Press, London, 535 pp.

Hatzios, K.K., and Penner, D.: 1982, Metabolism of Herbicides in Higher Plants, CEPCO iv., Burgess Publ., Edina, MN.

Holm, L.G., Plucknett, D.L., Pancho, J.V., and Herberger, J.P.: 1977, The World’s Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology, Univ. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Joyce, R.J.V.: 1983, ‘Aerial Transport of Pests and Pest Outbreaks’. EPPO Bulletin 13(2), 111–119.

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Lingren, P.D., Bryant, V.M., Jr., Raulston, JR., Pendleton, M., Westbrook, J., and Jones, G.D.: 1993, ‘Adult Feeding Host Range and Migratory Activities of Corn Earworm, Cabbage Looper, and Celery Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Moths as Evidenced by Attached Pollen’. Journal of Economic Entomology 86, 1429–1439.

Löpmeier, F.J.: 1990, ‘Klimaimpakforchung aus Agrarmeteorologischer’. Sicht. Bayer. Landw. Jarhb. 67(1), 185–190.

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Meier, W.: 1985, Pflanzenschutz im Feldbau. Tierische Schädlinge and Pflanzenkrankheiten, Eidgenossiche Forschungsanstalt for Landwirtschaftlichen Pflanzcnbau, 8 Auflage, Zorich-Reckenholz.

Mochida, O.: 1991, ‘Impact of CO2-climate Change on Pests Distribution’. Agr. Horticul. 66, 128–136.

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Oechol, W.C., and Strain, B.R.: 1985, ‘Native Species Responses to Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration’, in Strain, B.R., and Cure, J.D. (eds), Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation, DOE/ER-0238, Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

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Patterson, D.T.: 1993, ‘Implications of Global Climate Change for Impact of Weeds, Insects, and Plant Diseases’, in International Crop Science, vol. I., Crop Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 273–280.

Patterson, D.T.: 1995, ‘Weeds in a Changing Climate.’, Weed Science 43, 685–701.

Patterson, D.T., and Flint, E. P.: 1980, ‘Potential Effects of Global Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Competitiveness of C3 and C4 Weed and Crop Plants’. Weed Science 28, 71–75.

Patterson, D.T. and Flint, E.P.: 1990, ‘Implications of Increasing Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change for Plant Communities and Competition in Natural and Managed Ecosystems’, in Kimball, B.A., Rosenberg, N.J., and Allen, L.H., Jr. (eds), Impact of CO2, Trace Gases, and Climate Change on Global Agriculture, Special Publication 53, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 83–110.

Patterson, D.T., Meyer, C.R., Flint, E.P., and Quimby, P.C., Jr.: 1979, ‘Temperature Responses and Potential Distribution of Itchgrass (Rottboellia exaltata) in the United States’. Weed Science 27, 77–82.

Patterson, D.T., Flint, E.P., and Beyers, J.L.: 1984, ‘Effects Of CO2 Enrichment on Competition Between a C4 Weed and a C3 Crop’. Weed Science 32, 101–105.

Patterson, D. T., Russell, A.E, Mortensen, D. A., Coffin, R. D., and Flint, E.P.: 1986, ‘Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on Texas Panicum (Panicum texanum) and Wild Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Weed Science 32, 101–105.

Pedgley, D.E: 1982, Windborne Pests and Diseases: Meteorology of Airborne Organisms, Ellis Horwood Ltd., West Sussex, England, 250 pp.

Porter, J.H., Parry, M.L., and Carter, T.R.: 1991, ‘The Potential Effects of Climatic Change on Agricultural Insect Pests’. Agricultural Forest Meteorology 57, 221–240.

Prescott-Allen, R., and Prescott-Allen, C.: 1990, ‘How Many Plants Feed the World?’, Conservation Biology 4, 365–374.

Prestidge, R. A., and Pottinger, R. P.: 1990, ‘The Impact of Climate Change on Pests, Diseases, Weeds and Beneficial Organisms Present in New Zealand Agricultural and Horticultural Systems’, New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, Wellington.

Rahman, A., and Wardle, D. A.: 1990, ‘Effects of Climate Change on Cropping Weeds in New Zealand’, in Prestidge, R. A., and Pottinger, R. P. (eds.), The Impact of Climate Change on Pests, Diseases, Weeds and Beneficial Organisms Present in New Zealand Agriculltual and Horticultural Systems, New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, pp. 107–112.

Rainey, R.C.: 1989, Migration and Meteorology: Flight Behavior and the Atmospheric Environment of Migrant Pests, Oxford University Press, New York, 314 pp.

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Scott, R.W., and Achtemeier, G.L.: 1987, ‘Estimating Pathways of Migrating Insects Carried in Atmospheric Winds’. Environmental Entomology 16(6), 1244–1254.

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Sutherst, R.W.: 1990, ‘Impact of Climate Change on Pests and Diseases in Australasia’. Search 21, 230–232.

Sutherst, R.W.: 1991, ‘Pest Risk Analysis and the Greenhouse Effect’. Review of Agricultural Entomology 79, 1177–1187.

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The geographic distribution, vigor, virulence, and agricultural impact of weeds, insects, and plant pathogens will be affected by climatic changes accompan