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Maui and Kauai

Patients on Maui and Kauai need to make contact with Dr. Barton by Email, concerning cards. The email address is found in the auto-responder letter received by submitting your contact information on this website’s homepage. You can also text him, asking for the renewal forms, but the email request is still needed. New patients need to prescreen.

TeleHealth follow-up visits are on Thursdays from about 3 pm to about 5 pm, and about 6 pm if needed. This is on a first come first serve basis only, unless you make other arrangements with Dr. Barton. You can either text him or message him for more precision timing of the visit. The evening time period is a change starting June 2016. Other days require arrangements made directly with Dr. Barton.

Patients on Maui and Kauai need to make contact with Dr. Barton by Email, concerning cards. The email address is found in the auto-responder letter received by submitting your contact information on this website's homepage. You can also text him, asking for the renewal forms, but the email request is still needed. New patients need to prescreen. TeleHealth follow-up visits are ]]>

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firefly genetics

Incorporation of the Firefly Luciferase Gene into Plant Cells

  • D. W. Ow
  • S. H. Howell

Abstract

Reporter, or indicator genes such as lacZ (beta-galactosidase) and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase), encode for enzymes that allow convenient and sensitive biochemical detection of gene activity. For this reason, they have been used extensively for analysis of gene regulation. Recently, luciferases, enzymes that catalyze light emission, have been successfully used to measure gene expression in bacteria, mammalian cells and plant cells (Engebrecht et al. 1985; Ow et al. 1986, 1987; de Wet et al. 1987). In principle, a luciferase gene (or gene operon) is the biological equivalent of an indicator light. By placing it under the control of a biological switch, such as when fused behind a gene promoter, light emission becomes a reflection of promoter activity. Not only does it indicate when and where the biological switch is turned on, but the intensity of light emission measures transcriptional strength. Aside from monitoring gene promoter activity, a biological indicator light can also be put to many other uses. For example, it can serve as a screen-able marker in the transfer of DNA into eukaryotic cells, or as a convenient tag for studies of transmission and population genetics. This chapter reviews our recent work on the development of the firefly luciferase gene as a reporter of gene expression in plants.

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Reporter, or indicator genes such as lacZ (beta-galactosidase) and CAT(chloramphenicol acetyltransferase), encode for enzymes that allow convenient and sensitive biochemical detection of gene…

Science: Firefly factor makes colourful genetic marker

BACTERIA such as Escherichia coli will glow in the dark if supplied
with the gene for the firefly enzyme luciferase and a supply of its natural
substrate, luciferin. Now Keith Wood and his colleagues at the University
of California in San Diego, who were first to isolate the firefly gene,
have created four different clones of E. coli that glow with four different
colours. The new clones could prove very useful for studying the way genes
work within living cells (Science, vol 244, p 700).

All bioluminescent insects use the same system of luciferase acting
on luciferin, but different species emit different colours. Luciferase isolated
from a particular species always glows with that species’ characteristic
colour, regardless of the source of the luciferin, so the wavelength of
the light is a property of the enzyme, not of the substrate. To examine
this phenomenon in more detail, Wood and his colleagues turned to the click
beetle, Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus.

Click beetles have two lights, one on the top of the head and one at
the front end of the abdomen, and are unusual because different individuals
emit a wide range of colours. The headlamp is greenish, but varies from
green at 548 nanometres to yellow-green at 565nm. The abdominal light has
a longer wavelength, but again varies from beetle to beetle, with colours
between green (547nm) and orange (594nm).

Wood collected the beetles in Jamaica and froze them in liquid nitrogen.
Back in the laboratory, the team isolated messenger RNA from the abdominal
light organ and prepared complementary DNA copies of the RNA. Putting the
DNA into the bacteria and washing luciferin over the colonies revealed a
total of 11 clones of E. coli that had taken up click beetle DNA and were
making luciferase.

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The clones emitted one of four wavelengths: green 546, yellow-green
560, yellow 578, and orange 593nm. (Beetles in the wild emit other wavelengths
within this range, so it is possible that there are other luciferase genes
besides these four.) Wood sequenced the luciferase genes from four different
colours and discovered that they all code for an enzyme 543 amino acids
long. The exact sequence, however, varied slightly, by between 1 and 5 per
cent among the four different genes. So it does not take many changes to
the amino acid sequence of the luciferase to make it glow with a different
colour.

Forty-eight per cent of luciferase from click beetles is the same as
firefly luciferase, but the differences are spread throughout the whole
enzyme. This suggests that there are no particular regions that have to
be maintained to enable the enzymes to work.

Molecular biologists have already used the gene for firefly luciferase
to tell them whether other genes in the cell are working. If they put the
firefly gene downstream of another gene, any light emitted will reveal that
the other gene is operational. With four different colours at their disposal,
they will be able to follow up to four different genes in one cell.

BACTERIA such as Escherichia coli will glow in the dark if supplied with the gene for the firefly enzyme luciferase and a supply of its natural substrate, luciferin. Now Keith Wood and his colleagues at the University of California in San Diego, who were first to isolate the firefly gene, have created four different clones … ]]>

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algae seeds

How to Get Rid of Green Algae on Seed Starting Mix

The Spruce / Ulyana Verbytska

Starting plants from seed is an excellent and budget-friendly way to create an array of plants in your garden. With indoor seed starting, all you need to do is gather light, seeds, soil, water, and food, just like when you grow plants outside. If you’re starting to grow your seeds indoors, it’s common to find a sudden plethora of green algae growing on the surface of your seed starting mix. This happens frequently when using peat-based mixes, which most gardeners use for seed starting. The good news is that it’s not likely to harm seedlings, and it’s fairly simple to prevent.

Removing Green Algae on Seed Starting Mix

To clear up any green algae growing on your seed starting mix, lightly cultivate the surface of the soil with a small tool, such as a chopstick or pencil. This simply breaks up the layer of algae. The algae itself won’t hurt your seedlings, but it could cause problems if you allow it to keep growing. For example, algae growth can get very thick over time and start to hold too much moisture near the seedling’s stem. This can cause issues like rotting.  

Green Algae Growth

Green algae is a large and informal group of algae that contains chlorophyll. These eukaryotic organisms live primarily in freshwater and come about in many forms including unicellular flagellates.

When the site is muggy, algae growth is bound to grow on your seed starting mix. You’ll know for sure when you see a bloom of pink, green, or brown sticky material moving across the surface of the soil. While it won’t kill the seed immediately, it can cause issues with your soil’s nutrients and water.  

Causes and Prevention

Over 7,000 species of green algae are found in freshwater, saltwater, and damp spaces. The cause of algae growth comes from soil that stays too moist and has a lack of air circulation.  

One way to prevent the growth of algae is to switch up your watering technique. For instance, if you’ve been watering from the top, you can try watering from the bottom instead. Simply fill the tray that your seedlings are in with about an inch of water. The water that isn’t absorbed, after about an hour, should be poured out so you don’t end up rotting your seedlings.

To help with air circulation, keep an oscillating fan on low near your seed starting racks. This will keep your plants from staying too damp and will encourage stronger growth.

Choosing a Seed Mix

Despite the algae growth commonality, peat moss mixes are an ideal base for many soilless mixes due to its hold on water and air. This light and fibrous mix can hold 15 to 20 times its weight in water alone. You can also consider a mix like composted pine bark or coir, which are renewable organic materials, unlike peat moss.

If you notice that the surface of your seed starting mix is turning green, you probably have green algae growth. Learn the cause and how to remove it.

Detecting And Preventing Algae When Growing Cannabis

Is your cannabis looking nice and green? Or are your plants looking tired, wilted, and yellow? If they are, algae could be at the root of the issue. These microscopic organisms can cause a lot of trouble, from pH fluctuations to diseases to pest infections. Learn how to prevent, and treat algal growth to keep your weed plants healthy.

How to keep algae out of your grow

Contents:

Algae boast the status as one of the most important organisms on Earth. The aquatic lifeforms produce up to 50% of all oxygen on the planet, and they serve as food for the majority of aquatic life. Despite their vital role, though, algae can quickly become a problem for growing cannabis.

Moisture-loving algae quickly secure a foothold in hydroponic grows, although they can find their way into any growing medium. Once established, they pose multiple threats to cannabis plants.

Along with obstructing oxygen uptake, they offer a breeding ground to pathogens, and they can become a cosy home for pests. Below, you’ll learn how algae grow, why you don’t want them in your grow space, and what to do when they show up.

How Do Algae Grow?

Ultimately, algae require three primary factors to grow and thrive:

  • Moisture
  • Light
  • Essential nutrients

These environmental requirements are also the building blocks of every hydroponic and aeroponic growing system. The lifeforms become particularly problematic in those systems when they receive more light, freeform nutrients, and access to root systems.

However, they can also be found in other growing mediums like coco fibre and soil. That being said, with denser mediums like the latter, algae can only thrive on the surface.

Algae is almost impossible to avoid when growing hydroponically, especially when utilising organic nutrients and living water with beneficial bacteria. High levels of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus—key to cannabis plant development—also fuel algal blooms.

Despite their fundamental role in ecosystems and fascinating behaviour, algae are surprisingly simple lifeforms. Just like cannabis plants, these photosynthetic organisms require light to generate energy to survive, yet they lack leaves, stems, and roots.

Algae first enters hydroponic systems through microscopic airborne spores. Once these small packages of DNA land in a compatible environment, they start to develop into fully-formed cells. Algae reproduce through a process known as mitosis, during which the nucleus divides and produces genetically identical daughter cells.

When mitosis really gets going, algae begins to take over hydroponics sets ups. After proliferating enough, the lifeforms can start to cause several issues that put growing operations and yields at risk.

Will Algae Kill My Cannabis Plants?

Left unchecked, algae can cause significant damage to cannabis plants. Algae themselves don’t directly attack cannabis, though. Rather, along with suffocating plants and equipment, they cause harm by attracting pests and pathogens that eat and infect cannabis.

Algae Suffocate Plants And Clog Equipment

As algae proliferate on the water’s surface, it eventually forms large clusters around hydroponic roots systems. The organisms cling to roots as a supportive structure and quickly make their way up, especially if you use organic materials like rock wool. If left to grow out of control, algae disturb root function and impair nutrients abduction and oxygen uptake. They don’t just block roots from taking in oxygen; they steal the essential molecule for itself.

Algae take in carbon dioxide and put out oxygen during photosynthesis. However, these roles switch during the night. Without light, algae begin to transpire and uptake oxygen, leaving your plant with a minimized supply—potentially suffocating the roots. As algae take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide, they cause carbonic acid to accumulate in the water. This causes a significant drop in pH. Wild pH fluctuations occur when algae switch between either of these gases, disrupting optimal pH balance.

Algal growth doesn’t limit itself to the root system of cannabis plants. Before you know it, a vigorous bloom can work its way into pipes, filters, and external water reservoirs. Algae can also block air pumps, impeding ebb and flow systems & potentially causing flooding in automated systems when left unattended.

Algae Attracts Pests That Munch On Weed Plants

Thankfully, algal cells don’t possess mouthparts that chomp through stems, leaves, and roots. However, they do provide an ideal habitat for others that create water at the mouth at the sight of cannabis. These include:

  • Midges
  • Aphids
  • Nematodes
  • Cochineals
  • Fungus Gnats

All of these pest species feast on different parts of cannabis plants, including the roots and leaves. When these structures take too much abuse at the hands of these critters, key physiological functions become compromised. Leaves with too many holes fail to photosynthesise properly, and damaged roots won’t fulfil oxygen and nutrient demands.

Algae – A Hotbed of Plant Pathogens

If oxygen theft and pests weren’t good enough reasons to warrant banishing algae from your grow room, pathogens will be. Various species of fungi also thrive in moist and stagnant conditions, including:

  • Fusarium
  • Pythium
  • Alternaria
  • Verticillium
  • Septoria

These species can cause several different diseases to arrive, including root rot and leaf spot disease. Algae also help some of these pathogens get a foothold, even hurting plants that thrive above the surface.

Symptoms of Algae Build-Up on Cannabis Plants

The symptoms of algae are widely varied. The manifestation of plant ailments will depend on exactly how the algae affect your crop—directly or indirectly. The primary symptoms of an algae infestation include:

  • Oxygen deprivation (wilting, distorted growth, yellow leaves, dropping leaves).
  • pH fluctuations (stunted growth, leaf spots, wilting, nutrient deficiencies).
  • Pest infestations (visible insects around the leaves, holes in leaves, yellowing).
  • Fungal diseases (wilting, browning, black/brown rotted roots, cankers, oozing sap).

How to Spot Algae

Before we dive into techniques to prevent and tackle algae, you should know exactly how to identify it.

It often appears in the form of a green film on the surface on your reservoir and on the interior of your pumps, tubes, and pipes. They can also display shades of brown, gold, red, and black.

Despite it being visually obvious, growers can also detect algae with their nose before they lay eyes on it. If you detect a mouldy or earthy smell while walking past your grow, you should look for algae forming.

How to Prevent and Manage Algae

As an inevitability in hydroponic growing, working to prevent algae will only go so far. Probability dictates that the organism will show up at some point, especially in organic living grows that aim to accumulate microorganisms. Luckily, small algal infestations will do little to impact the health of your plants, and there are steps you can take to minimise their growth.

Keep Your Equipment Blacked-Out

As the old saying goes, prevention is better than a cure. Taking steps to reduce algal growth will save you more work in the long run.

Because algae require light to grow, establish, and proliferate, depriving them of this life source does wonders to keep their numbers down. To keep them in the dark, follow these tips:

  • Go for thick, black plastic when making or purchasing a reservoir and pipes
  • Select black tubing (as opposed to transparent)
  • Use spray paint to black-out tubs and jars if using the Kratky method

Blacking-out all pieces of equipment and surfaces that contact water and light will give you a great head start against algae from the start.

Maintain An Optimal Temperature Range

Just as it thrives on light and nutrients, algae also adore warmth. The organism will multiply much faster and more efficiently in warmer water. However, your plants will be affected if temperatures drop too low.

Aim to keep the water temperature between 21-23°C to fend off algae while keeping your plants happy. You can track water temperatures and keep them consistent using thermometers and hydroponic heats and coolers.

How To Treat An Algae Infestation

Now that we’ve covered the most effective preventative measures, let’s take a look at how to beat algae down once it makes an appearance.

There are several options growers have when it comes to getting rid of algae. Some of them are ideal for sterile growing, whereas others are friendly to living organic growing methods.

Hydrogen peroxide sends algae running.

Mix 3mm of H₂O₂ with five litres of water and give all surfaces a good scrub down. As a highly volatile and water-soluble chemical, H₂O₂ works to destroy the cell walls of algae and remove them from the growing space.

Utilize some grape seed extract.

Use it as a natural alternative when scrubbing down reservoirs, tubes, pipes, and surfaces. The phytochemicals in this extract help to remove algae quickly.

Barley mats.

Add a layer of barley straw to the reservoir after cleaning it. This material will form a mat and keep algae at bay, all whilst helping beneficial microorganisms bounce back.

Algae can deprive cannabis plants of oxygen, increase the risk of pests and disease, and alter the soil pH. We'll teach you how to prevent and treat the issue. ]]>

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delta 9 strain

Delta 9

breed by Dutch Passion

Here you can find all info about Delta 9 from Dutch Passion. If you are searching for information about Delta 9 from Dutch Passion, check out our Basic Infos, Gallery, Lineage / Genealogy or User Comments for this cannabis variety here at this page and follow the links to get even more information – or list all Delta 9 Strains (2) to find a different version. If you have any personal experiences with growing or consuming this cannabis variety, please use the upload links to add them to the database!

Basic / Breeders Info

Delta 9 is a sativa variety from Dutch Passion and can be cultivated indoors (where the plants will need a flowering time of ±63 days ) . Dutch Passions Delta 9 is a THC dominant variety and is/was never available as feminized seeds.

Dutch Passions Delta 9 Description

As we think of Skywalker as the best attainable Indica, Delta 9 is to us one of the best Sativas possible. We hybridized an Isis female with a Flo male, the best Sativas in our collection. The result is a Haze-like aroma and taste from the Isis, combined with the very subtle Flo `high`. This composition is almost a form of art. Good yield of excellent quality, reminding one of the best Kashmir hash from the seventies. A rich plant with big buds which Holland can be proud of.

flowering period: 8 – 10 weeks
harvest time outdoor: 2nd week Nov.

Delta 9 Gallery

Here you see the latest Delta 9 photos, uploaded from our users! Altogether we’ve collected 7 pictures from Dutch Passions Delta 9, check out our Delta 9 gallery to view them all.

Delta 9 breed by Dutch Passion Here you can find all info about Delta 9 from Dutch Passion . If you are searching for information about Delta 9 from Dutch Passion, check out our Basic Infos,

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