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The stigma may be located at the end of a stalk called the style. Carpel - The carpel is the ovary of the flower and contains ovules which are potential seeds. Fruits are a way which many plants spread their seeds.

Fruits are formed after the flower is fertilized with pollen. The ovules in the pistil will become seeds and the flower will transform into a fruit. Seeds come in all sizes shapes and colors depending on the type of plant. Inside the seed is a plant embryo, food for the embryo, and a seed coat to protect it. Seeds may be dispersed by a number of ways including air, water, and animals. Some seeds are light and have hairs or wings that help them to float in the air. Other seeds can float on the water and disperse by riding on rivers and streams.

Still other seeds have tasty fruit that animals eat and then get dispersed in the animals' droppings. In order for an ovary to become a seed, it must receive pollen. Insects and birds can play an important role in pollinating plants. When an insect or bird is attracted to a flower by its bright color, they get pollen on them. As they move from plant to plant, they move the pollen from one plant to another. This helps the plants to reproduce by creating seeds. Plants are different to animals partly because they use the energy from sunlight through a process called photosynthesis (although there are a few plants that don’t). Plant cells have much in common with animal cells, but they have some different structures. Just take a walk in the garden or bush to see the amazing variety. Botanists organise the plant kingdom into groups based on features found in different plants. Plants are divided into two big groups, based on how they reproduce: Plants that produce seeds (flowering plants and cone plants). Plants that produce spores (ferns, mosses, liverworts and green algae). Seed plants have special structures on them (flowers or cones) where special male and female cells join through a process called fertilisation. After fertilisation, a tiny plant called an embryo is formed inside a seed. The seed protects the embryo and stores food for it. The seed is dispersed away from the parent plant, and when conditions are right, the embryo germinates and grows into a new plant. There are two main groups of seed plants: Gymnosperms – plants with cones. These seed plants do not have flowers or fruit - their seeds are held in cones. Next time you pick up a pine cone, look for loose seeds inside. Male cones make pollen, which is carried to female cones by the wind. After the female gametes are fertilised by male gametes from the pollen, the female cones produce seeds. These are then scattered away from the plant by wind or animals. There are about 20 native gymnosperms in New Zealand, including our tallest tree, the kahikatea ( Dacrycarpus dacrydioides , white pine).

Others include mataī ( Prumnopitys taxifolia , black pine), tōtara ( Podocarpus totara ), rimu ( Dacrydium cupressinum , red pine) and kauri ( Agathis australis ).

The main tree that makes up New Zealand’s plantation forests is the exotic gymnosperm Pinus radiata . Angiosperms produce flowers, which are special structures for reproduction. They contain male parts that make pollen and female parts that contain ovules. Some plants have these male and female parts in different flowers. Pollen is carried from a male part to a female part by wind or animals (a process called pollination), where it releases male gametes that fertilise the female gametes in the ovules.

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